Apply These Secret Techniques To Improve Pregnancy Loss And Chromosome Testing For Miscarriages

Although most couples are blissfully unacquainted with the statistics surrounding miscarriage, pregnancy loss is really quite common, with 10-25% of recognized pregnancies ending in miscarriage. In case you have suffered a pregnancy loss or are in the process of experiencing a miscarriage, you might be wondering what caused the loss and worry about whether it will happen again. This short article aims to answer the next questions:

What causes miscarriage?
How common is pregnancy loss?
What type of genetic testing can be acquired for miscarriage tissue?
How can chromosome testing help?
Causes of Miscarriage

There are many different reasons why miscarriage occurs, but the most typical cause for first trimester miscarriage is really a chromosome abnormality. Chromosome abnormalities – extra or missing whole chromosomes, also called “aneuploidy” – occur because of a mis-division of the chromosomes in the egg or sperm involved with a conception. Typically, humans have 46 chromosomes that come in 23 pairs (22 pairs numbered from 1 to 22 and then the sex chromosomes, X and Y). For a baby to develop normally it is important that it have the right level of chromosome material; missing or extra material during conception or within an embryo or fetus could cause a female to either not get pregnant, miscarry, or have a baby with a chromosome syndrome such as for example Down syndrome.

Over 50% of all first trimester miscarriages are due to chromosome abnormalities. This number may be closer to 75% or more for women aged 35 years and over who’ve experienced recurrent pregnancy loss. Overall, the rate of chromosome abnormalities and the rate of miscarriage both increase with maternal age, with a steep increase in women older than 35.

Book Pregnancy Loss – How Common is it?

Miscarriage is a lot more common than a lot of people think. Up to one in every four recognized pregnancies is lost in first trimester miscarriage. The chance of experiencing a miscarriage also increases as a mother gets older.

Nearly all women who experience a miscarriage go on to get a healthy pregnancy and never miscarry again. However, some women appear to be more susceptible to miscarriage than others. About five percent of fertile couples will experience two or more miscarriages.

Of note, the rate of miscarriage seems to be increasing. One reason for this can be awareness – more women know they’re having a miscarriage because home pregnancy tests have improved early pregnancy detection rates over the past decade, whereas previously the miscarriage would have were just an unusual period. Another reason could be that more women are conceiving at older ages.

Types of Genetic Testing Ideal for Miscarriages

Genetic testing actually identifies many different types of testing that you can do on the DNA in a cell. For miscarriage tissue, also called products of conception (POC), probably the most useful type of test to perform is a chromosome analysis. A chromosome analysis (also called chromosome testing) can examine all 23 pairs of chromosomes for the current presence of extra or missing chromosome material (aneuploidy). Because so many miscarriages are due to aneuploidy, chromosome analysis on the miscarriage tissue can often identify the reason behind the pregnancy loss.

The most common approach to chromosome analysis is called karyotyping. Newer methods include advanced technologies such as microarrays.

Karyotyping analyzes all 23 pairs of chromosome but requires cells from the miscarriage tissue to first be grown in the laboratory, an activity called “cell culture”. Due to this requirement, tissue that’s passed at home is often unable to be tested with this method. About 20% or more of miscarriage samples neglect to grow and thus no results are available. Additionally, karyotyping struggles to tell the difference between cells from mom (maternal cells) and cells from the fetus. If a normal female result is available, it may be the correct result for the fetus or it can be maternal cell contamination (MCC) in which the result actually comes from testing the mother’s cells within the pregnancy tissue rather than the fetal cells. MCC appears to occur in about 30% or more of the samples tested by traditional karyotype. Results from karyotyping usually take a few weeks to months another from the laboratory.

Microarray testing is really a new kind of genetic testing done on miscarriage samples; both most common types of microarray testing are array CGH (comparative genomic hybridization) and chromosome SNP (single-nucleotide polymorphism) microarray. Microarray testing can be able to test all 23 pairs of chromosomes for aneuploidy, but does not require cell culture. Therefore, you’re more prone to receive results and the outcomes are usually returned faster when microarray testing is used. Additionally, some laboratories are collecting an example of the mother’s blood simultaneously the miscarriage tissue is delivered to enable immediate detection of maternal cell contamination (MCC).

Chromosome Testing – How can it help?

In case a chromosome abnormality is identified, the sort of abnormality found can be assessed to help answer fully the question: “Will this happen to me again?”. Most of the time, chromosome abnormalities within an embryo or fetus aren’t inherited and have a low possiblity to occur in future pregnancies. Sometimes, a specific chromosome finding in a miscarriage alerts your physician to do further studies to research the possibility of an underlying genetic or chromosome problem in your loved ones that predisposes you to have miscarriages.

Furthermore, if a chromosome abnormality is identified it could prevent the dependence on other, sometimes quite costly, studies your doctor might consider to investigate the reason for the miscarriage.

Lastly, knowing the reason for a pregnancy loss can help a couple of start the emotional healing up process, moving at night question of “Why did this eventually me?”.

Chromosome testing could be especially very important to patients with repeated miscarriages, as it can either give clues to an underlying chromosomal cause for the miscarriages or rule out chromosome errors as the reason behind the miscarriages and allow their doctor to pursue other types of testing. For couples with multiple miscarriages determined to have a chromosomal cause, in vitro fertilization (IVF) with preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) testing might be able to help increase their likelihood of having a successful healthy pregnancy.

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